Historia de Santiago del Estero

Por Guillermo Adolfo Abregú

Breve reseña histórica de la provincia de Santiago del Estero, nominada "Madre de Ciudades" por ser la más antigua de la Argentina. Fragmentos de la obra publicada con forma de libro por la Municipalidad de la Capital de Santiago el Estero en 2003, con motivo de celebrarse su 450 aniversario.

Mi foto
Nombre: Agencia Digital de Noticias
Ubicación: Internacional, Santiago del Estero, Argentina

lunes, julio 25, 2005

La entrada a lo que hoy es Santiago del Estero

1543 sería el año en que una expedición española entrara por primera vez a tierras santiagueñas.
Al margen de las distintas interpretaciones que le dieron los historiadores a la entrada del capitán Diego de Rojas a la región del Tucumán, más precisamente a lo que hoy constituye el territorio de Santiago del Estero, en el sentido de si buscaba con intención avanzar por esa línea geográfica hasta encontrar el Río de la Plata y descubrir la Patagonia, o si se debió a una causalidad de desviar el rumbo en un lugar llamado Chicoana en el Valle Calchaquí, desistiendo de seguir a Chile por entender que la ruta del Tucumán era muy poblada y rica en alimentos, lo cierto es que en diciembre de 1543, bajando del Aconquija, pasó por las actuales localidades tucumanas de Tafí, Concepción y Graneros, llegó hasta el sur de Catamarca y entró a nuestra actual provincia por las sierras de Guasayán.
Las versiones en cuanto al punto de entrada a nuestra provincia de Diego de Rojas, tanto como el lugar donde se enfrentó con los juríes y fue alcanzado por una flecha envenenada, como así el sitio de su muerte pocos días más tarde, varían entre Maquijata -algún otro lugar cercano comprendido entre los departamentos Guasayán y Choya- y Salavina. No obstante la carencia de datos exactos en este sentido, su trayecto final, desde la infausta escaramuza hasta su muerte, comprende las localidades citadas.
Como paradoja del trágico fin que encontró para su vida Diego de Rojas, cabe señalar que uno de los propósitos que animaron a este capitán de la primera entrada a nuestro territorio santiagueño -que se había caracterizado siempre por su buen trato con los indios- era llevar el signo de la evangelización y el acercamiento con los nativos.
Francisco de Mendoza y Nicolás de Heredia sucedieron en las marchas por la región del Tucumán a Diego de Rojas en el regreso de la expedición al Perú, donde aún se registraban enconadas hostilidades por el dominio del Cuzco, tras el trágico fin de los principales protagonistas de la conquista.
Entre 1540 y 1546, año éste último de retorno de los expedicionarios de Diego de Rojas, un cúmulo de acontecimientos de relevante magnitud hacían del Perú el escenario más candente de la conquista. Francisco Pizarro se enfrentaba a las huestes de Diego de Almagro, a quien hiciera ajusticiar, pero siendo luego derrotado y muerto por los partidarios de Diego de Almagro hijo, en 1541. Poco
después, éste era ajusticiado por orden de Cristóbal Vaca de Castro, elegido por Carlos V para gobernar el Perú tras la muerte de Pizarro.
También por entonces, en ese intrincado y cruento escenario de la conquista, los hermanos de Francisco Pizarro, Gonzalo y Hernando, se rebelaban contra Carlos V y tomaban en sus manos la decisión de condenar a muerte al virrey Blasco Núñez de Vela -designado en 1544- en desacuerdo con las medidas que había implementado, entre ellas, de quitar beneficios de encomiendas. Sin embargo, el cometido del Rey para restablecer la paz en el Perú, comenzaría a tener efecto con el nombramiento del sacerdote y licenciado Pedro La Gasca como Presidente de la Audiencia de Lima.
Cabe acotar que no debe tomarse a las guerras civiles que tuvieron lugar en el Perú como un indicativo excluyente de los fines que animaban a aquellos hombres que descubrían un nuevo mundo. La colonización por parte de España -a diferencia de otras naciones que lo hacían entonces y lo hicieron con posterioridad en diferentes partes del mundo subyugando y esclavizando-, tuvo un sentido misional y cultural que la caracterizó y colocó por encima de otras, permitiendo -por ejemplo- el casamiento entre españoles y aborígenes, la igualdad jurídica y social del indio con el blanco, el dictado de numerosas ordenanzas en ese sentido, un evangelio cristiano para practicarlo en común, la creación de iglesias, escuelas y universidades, además de la enseñanza de diversas artes y conocimientos dirigidos al enriquecimiento espiritual y humanístico y, desde luego, el esfuerzo para la organización territorial y el crecimiento productivo.

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